Non-Conventional Energy Sources


Author: Math M C

ISBN: 9789388005081

Copy Right Year: 2019

Pages:  460

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

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This book is designed for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering of various Universities in India. Most of the Indian Universities are offering this course for the students to create awareness about non-conventional energy sources. Conventional sources of energy are depleting at a faster rate and their use has a negative impact on breathing air quality. The continuous use of fossil fuels is causing global warming, resulting in climate change. This is the right time to refocus our energy policy towards sustainable, indigenous, and eco-friendly sources of energy. Non-conventional sources of energy are gaining attention all over world as supplementary sources to conventional sources of energy. Non-conventional sources of energy are renewable or inexhaustible and do not harm the environment.

Additional information

Weight .55 kg
Dimensions 23 × 18 × 2 cm

Table of Content

Chapter 1 Sources of Energy
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Forms of Energy
1.2.1 Potential Energy
1.2.2 Kinetic Energy
1.3 Sources of Energy
1.3.1 Primary Sources of Energy
1.3.2 Secondary Sources of Energy
1.4 Classification of Energy Sources
1.5 Comparison of Non-conventional Energy Sources with Conventional Energy Sources
1.6 Comparison of Renewable Energy Sources with Non-renewable Energy Sources
1.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Renewable Energy Sources
1.8 Conventional Energy Sources
1.8.1 Coal (Solid Fuel)
1.8.2 Petroleum Fossil Fuels (Liquid Fuels)
1.8.3 Gaseous Fuel
1.8.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Liquid Fuels Over Solid Fuels
1.8.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Gaseous Fuels Over Solid Fuels
1.9 Non-conventional Energy Sources
1.9.1 Solar Energy
1.9.2 Wind Energy
1.9.3 Nuclear Energy
1.9.4 Tidal Energy
1.9.5 Geothermal Energy
1.9.6 Wave Energy
1.9.7 Hydro Energy
1.9.8 Biodiesel
1.9.9 Alcohols
1.10 World Energy Scenario
1.11 Indian Energy and Electricity Scenario
1.11.1 Consumption Pattern of Electricity in India
1.12 Status of Conventional Energy Sources in India
1.12.1 Status of Coal in India
1.12.2 Status of Crude Oil in India
1.12.3 Status of Natural Gas in India
1.13 Status of Non-conventional Energy Sources in India
1.13.1 Status of Wind Power in India
1.13.2 Status of Solar Power in India
1.13.3 Hydropower
1.13.4 Status of Biomass Energy in India
1.13.5 Nuclear Power
1.14 Cost Analysis of Power Generation from Various Sources in India
 Chapter 2 Solar Energy
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Solar Radiation Outside the Earth’s Atmosphere
2.3 Spectral Distribution of Extra terrestrial Radiation
2.4 Solar Irradiance
2.5 Solar Radiation at the Earth’s Surface
2.6 Solar Radiation Data
Chapter 3 Measurement of Solar Radiation
3.1 Solar Radiation Measurement Instruments
3.2 Pyranometer
3.2.1 Eppley Pyranometer
3.3 Pyrheliometer
3.3.1 History
3.3.2 Classification of Pyrheliometers
3.3.3 Angstrom Pyrheliometer
3.3.4 Abbot Silver Disc Pyrheliometer
3.3.5 Eppley Pyrheliometer
3.4 Sunshine Recorder
 Chapter 4 Solar Radiation Geometry
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Latitude of Location
4.3 Declination
4.4 Hour Angle
4.5 Solar Azimuth Angle
4.6 Zenith Angle
4.7 Altitude Angle
4.8 Slope
4.9 Surface Azimuth Angle
4.10 Incident Angle
4.11 Express for the Angle between the Incident Beam Radiation and the Normal to a Plane Surface
4.12 Day Length
4.13 Local Apparent Time (LAT)
4.14 Apparent Motion of the Sun
4.15 Radiation Flux on Tilted Surface
4.15.1 Introduction
4.15.2 Important Expressions
4.15.3 Solar Radiation on an Inclined Surface
4.15.4 Tilt Factors
 Chapter 5 Solar Thermal Conversion
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Types of Solar Collectors
5.3 Solar Flat Plate Collector
5.3.1 Liquid Flat Plate Collector
5.3.2 Solar Air Heater
5.4 Solar Thermal Energy Storage
5.4.1 Sensible Heat Storage
5.5 Focusing Solar Collector/Parabolic Trough Reflector
5.6 Concentrating Collector/Point Focusing Collector
5.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Concentrating Solar Collector
5.8 Solar Ponds
5.8.1 Advantages of Solar Pond
5.8.2 Operation and Maintenance Problem of Solar Ponds
5.8.3 Applications of Solar Pond
5.8.4 Solar Pond Electric Power Plant
5.9 Thermal Applications of Solar Energy
5.10 Solar Water Heating System
5.11 Central Tower Receiver
5.12 Flat Plate Collector with Booster Mirror
5.13 Winston Collector
5.14 Central Tower Receiver Power Plant
5.15 Solar Furnace
5.16 Solar Heating
5.16.1 Passive Heating System
5.16.2 Active Solar Heating System
5.17 Solar Chimney Plant
5.18 Solar Cookers
5.18.1 Solar Box Type Cookers
5.18.2 Parabolic Solar Cookers
5.19 Solar Powered Distiller
5.20 Evacuated Tube Collector
5.21 Comparison of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tube Collector
5.22 Solar Powered Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System
Chapter 6 Performance Analysis of Liquid Flat Plate Collectors
6.1 Collector Description
6.1.1 Absorber Plate
6.1.2 Cover Sheets
6.1.3 An Insulator Box
6.2 Performance Analysis
6.3 Instantaneous Collection Efficiency
6.4 Transmissivity of the Cover System
6.5 Transmissivity Based on Absorption
6.6 Transmissivity−Absorptivity Product
6.7 Temperature Distribution between the Collector Tubes (Thermal Analysis of Flat Plate Collector)
6.8 Collector Heat Removal Factor
6.9 Expression for Overall Loss Coefficient
6.9.1 Top Loss Coefficient
6.9.2 Bottom Loss Coefficient
6.9.3 Side Loss Coefficient
6.10 Factor Affecting the Performance of a Flat Plate Collector
6.10.1 Selective Surface
6.10.2 Number of Covers
6.10.3 Fluid Inlet Temperature
6.10.4 Incident Solar Flux
6.10.5 Insulation of the Collector
6.10.6 Orientation of the Collector
6.10.7 Dust on Cover Plate
6.10.8 Spacing between Covers
6.11 Solar Power Generation
6.11.1 Low Temperature Solar Power Generation
 Chapter 7 Photovoltaic Conversion
7.1 Photovoltaic Conversion
7.1.1 Working Principle
7.2 Photovoltaic Materials
7.3 Factors Limiting the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Systems
7.4 Fill Factor
7.5 Efficiency of the Solar Cell
7.6 I-V Characteristics of Solar Cell
7.7 Application of Photovoltaic Systems
 Chapter 8 Wind Energy
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Wind Data
8.3 Variation of Wind Speed with Height
8.4 Wind Speed Variation with Time
8.5 Wind Speed Measurement Devices
8.5.1 Types
8.5.2 Cup Anemometer
8.5.3 Hot-wire Anemometer
8.5.4 Ultrasonic Anemometer
8.6 Wind Characteristics
8.7 Classifications of Winds
8.7.1 Planetary Winds
8.7.2 Periodic Winds
8.7.3 Local Winds
8.8 Basic Principle of Wind Energy Conversion
8.8.1 Expression for Maximum Power
8.8.2 Forces on the Blades and Thrust on Turbines
8.9 Wind Turbine Power Output Variations with Steady Wind Speed
8.9.1 Wind Turbine Cut-in-Speed
8.9.2 Rated Output Power and Rate Output Wind Speed
8.9.3 Cut-out-Speed
8.10 Aerodynamics Principle of Wind Turbine
8.11 Rotor Efficiency
8.12 Rotor Diameter and Generator Rated Power
8.13 Basic Components of Wind Energy Conversion System
8.14 Classifications of Wind Energy Conversion Systems
8.15 Horizontal Axis Windmill
8.16 Vertical Axis Windmill
8.16.1 Savonius Rotors
8.16.2 Darrieus Rotor
8.17 Wind Power Water Pump
8.18 Important Performance Parameters of Wind Turbine
8.18.1 Power Coefficient
8.18.2 Lift Coefficient
8.18.3 Drag Coefficient
8.18.4 Tip Speed Ratio
8.18.5 Solidity of Wind Turbine
8.19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy
 Chapter 9 Tidal Power
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Elements of Tidal Power Plants
9.3 Energy and Power in Simple Single Basin Tidal System
9.4 Tidal Power Plants
9.5 Classification of Tidal Power Plants
9.5.1 Single Basin-One-way
9.5.2 Single Basin-Two-way
9.5.3 Simple Double Basin
9.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Tidal Power Generation
Chapter 10 Wave Energy
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Important Terms
10.3 Wave Motion
10.4 Energy and Power from Wave
10.4.1 Potential Energy of Wave
10.4.2 Kinetic Energy of Wave
10.5 Wave –Energy Conversion Devices
10.6 Types of Wave –Energy Conversion Devices
10.6.1 Wave –Energy Conversion by Floats
10.6.2 High-level Reservoir Wave Machine
10.6.3 Hydraulic Accumulator Wave Machine
10.6.4 Oscillating Type Wave Conversion Device
10.6.5 The Dolphin Type Wave Power Machine
10.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wave Energy
 Chapter 11 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Methods to Harness Ocean Thermal Energy
11.2.1 Closed Cycle OTEC system − (Rankine Cycle)
11.2.2 Open Cycle OTEC System − (Claude Cycle)
11.2.3 Hybrid Cycle OTEC System
11.3 Site Selection
11.4 Advantages and Disadvantages OTEC
11.5 Problems Associated with OTEC Power Generation
Chapter 12 Geothermal Energy
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Classification of Geothermal Resources
12.3 Hydrothermal Convective Systems
12.3.1 Vapour Dominated or Dry Steam System
12.3.2 Liquid-dominated Systems with Single Splash
12.3.3 Liquid-dominated Systems with Double Splash
12.3.4 Liquid-dominated Binary Cycle Power Plant
12.3.5 Total Flow Liquid Dominated Geothermal Plant
12.4 Geo-pressure Resources
12.5 Petro-thermal or Hot Dry Rocks
12.5.1 Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
12.6 Comparison of Various Liquid Dominated Geothermal Systems
12.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy Over other Energy Sources
12.8 Problems Associated with Geothermal Thermal Energy Sources
Chapter 13 Energy from Biomass
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Photosynthesis
13.2.1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Process
13.3 Biomass as a Source of Energy
13.3.1 Issues Related to Use of Biomass as a Source of Energy
13.3.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass Energy
13.4 Classification of Biomass
13.4.1 Solid Biomass
13.4.2 Liquid
13.4.3 Gases
13.5 Characteristics of Biomass as a Heating Fuel
13.5.1 Heating Value
13.5.2 Moisture Content
13.5.3 Composition
13.5.4 Fuel Size and Density
13.6 Biomass Conversion Technologies
13.6.1 Direct Combustion
13.6.2 Pyrolysis (Destructive Distillation)
13.6.3 Gasification
13.7 Gasifiers
13.7.1 Updraft or Counter Current Gasifier
13.7.2 Downdraft or Co-current Gasifier
13.7.3 Cross-draft Gasifier
13.8 Fluidized Bed Combustion
13.8.1 Mechanism of Fluidized Bed Combustion
13.8.2 Types of FBC Boilers
13.9 Biochemical Conversion
13.9.1 Aerobic Digestion
13.9.2 Anaerobic Digestion
13.10Factors Affecting Production of Biogas
13.10.3 Nature and Availability of Feed stocks
13.10.4Type of Digester
13.10.5Type of Feeding
13.10.7 Hydraulic Retention Time and Organic Loading Rate
13.10.8 Carbon−Nitrogen Ratio
13.11Classification of Biogas Plants
13.11.1 Continuous and Batch Types
13.11.2TheDome and Drum Type Digesters
13.13Rubber Balloon Biogas Plants
13.14Advantages and Disadvantages of Floating Drum Digester
13.15Advantages and Disadvantages of Fixed Dome Digester
13.16Advantages and Disadvantages of Anaerobic Digestion
13.17Problems Related to Biogas Production
13.18Biogas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines
Chapter 14 Hydrogen Energy
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Properties of Hydrogen
14.3 Hydrogen Production Methods
14.3.1 Production of Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels
14.3.2 Production of Hydrogen from Coal
14.3.3 Production of Hydrogen from Water Splitting
14.4 Hydrogen Storage
14.4.1 Gaseous Hydrogen
14.4.2 Liquid Hydrogen Storage
14.4.3 Solid Hydrogen Storage
14.5 Hydrogen Transportation
14.6 Applications of hydrogen gas
14.6.1 Hydrogen as a Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines
14.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydrogen as Transport Fuel
Chapter 15 Hydroelectric Power Plants

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Elements of Hydroelectric Power Plant
15.2.1 Water Reservoir
15.2.2 Dam
15.2.3 Spillway
15.2.4 Powerhouse
15.3 Classification of Hydroelectric Power Plants
15.4 Mini-hydropower Plant
15.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Micro-hydropower Plants
15.4.2 Bulb Propeller Turbine
15.5 Water Hammer
15.6 Intake System
15.6.1 Gates (Hydraulic)
15.7 Selection of Site for Hydroelectric Power Plant
15.8 Water Turbines
15.8.1 Classification
15.9 Pelton Wheel
15.9.1 Penstock
15.9.2 Spear
15.9.3 Nozzle
15.9.4 Buckets
15.9.5 Runner
15.9.6 Brake Nozzle
15.10Working of Pelton Wheel
15.11GeneralCharacteristics of Pelton Turbine
15.12.3 Runner Blades
15.12.5Working of Francis Turbine
15.12.6GeneralCharacteristics of Francis Turbine
15.13.3 Runner
15.13.4Hub (Boss)
15.13.6Working of Kaplan Turbine
15.13.7GeneralCharacteristics of Kaplan Turbine
 Chapter 16 Additional Energy Sources
16.1 Thermoelectric Power Conversion
16.1.1 Principles of Thermoelectric Power Generation
16.1.2 Thermoelectric Power Generator
16.2 Thermionic Power Generation
16.2.1 Work Function (ϕ)
16.2.2 Sources of Energy for Electron Emissions
16.2.3 Types of Thermionic Converters
16.2.4 Applications of Thermionic Converter
16.3 Fuel Cells
16.3.1 Classification of Fuel Cells
16.3.2 PEMFC
16.3.3 SOFC
16.3.4 AFC
16.3.5 MCFC
16.3.6 PAFC
16.3.7 DMFC
16.3.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuel Cells
16.4 Magneto Hydrodynamic Power Generation (MHD)
16.4.1 Principle of MHD Power Generation
16.4.2 MHD Types
16.4.3 Types of MHD Generators

• Appendix A List of Symbols
• Appendix B Units
• Appendix C Conversion factors
• Appendix D Common constants
• References and Suggested Readings
• Index

About The Author

Dr. M. C. Math is Associate Professor, Department of Thermal Power Engineering, Post Graduate Center, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Mysore. He has 19 years of teaching experience. Currently, he has published 32 technical papers at International / National journals and conferences. He has obtained his Ph.D from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad. He obtained his M.Tech in Thermal Power Engineering from VTU, Belgaum (PDACE, Gulbarga) and Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Karnataka University, Dharwad (Basaveshwara Engineering College, Bagalkot). He is the life member of ISTE.


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