## Description

This book is written in a simple and lucid manner comprehensively covering Basic and Applied Thermodynamics for students and faculty of Mechanical, Automobile, and Aeronautical Engineering. It unravels the subject in a systematic manner using variety of illustrative examples taken from university examinations.

## Table of Content

**Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions**

1.1 Definition of Thermodynamics

1.2 Definitions of Related Terms

1.3 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

1.4 Measurement of Temperature

1.5 Comparison of Temperature Scales

1.6 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

1.7 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale

**Chapter 2 Heat and Work**

2.1 Forms of Energy

2.2 Internal Energy

2.3 Heat

2.3.1 Characteristics of Heat

2.4 Work

2.4.1 Thermodynamic Definition of Work

2.4.2 Characteristics of Work

2.5 Sign Conventions for Heat and Work

2.6 Classification of Work

2.6.1 Mechanical Forms of Work

2.6.2 Non-mechanical Forms of Work

2.7 Differences between Heat and Work

**Chapter 3 First Law of Thermodynamics**

3.1 First Law for a Closed System Undergoing a Cycle

3.2 First Law for a Closed System Undergoing a Change of State

3.3 Alternative Statement of First Law of Thermodynamics

3.3.1 Different Forms of the First Law for a Non-cyclic Process

3.3.2 Illustrations of Q −W = ΔE

3.4 Important Consequences of the First Law of Thermodynamics

3.5 Classification of Energy of a System

3.6 Pure Substances

3.7 Flow Work

3.8 Enthalpy of a Pure Substance

3.9 Specific Heats of a Pure Substance

3.10 First Law Applied to Flow Process (Control Volume)

3.11 Applications of SFEE

**Chapter 4 Second Law of Thermodynamics**

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definitions

4.3 Performance of Direct Heat Engine

4.3.1 Second Law of Thermodynamics Related to Direct Heat

Engine (Kelvin−Plank’s Statement)

4.4 Reversed Heat Engine

4.4.1 Second Law of Thermodynamics Related to Heat Pump or

Refrigerator –Reversed Heat Engine (Clausius Statement)

4.5 Equivalence of Kelvin−Planck and Clausius Statements

4.6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

4.6.1 Causes of Irreversibility

4.7 Reversible Heat Engine

4.8 Important Consequences of the Second Law

4.8.1 Consequence 1: [CarnotTheorem2]

4.8.2 Consequence 2: [CarnotTheorem1]

4.8.3 Consequence 3: [Absolute Scale of Temperature

(Kelvin scale of Temperature)]

4.9 Carnot Engine

**Chapter 5 Entropy**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Clausius Inequality

5.3 Entropy is a Property of a System

5.4 Principle of Increase of Entropy

5.5 Reversible Process on a T-S Diagram

5.6 Carnot Efficiency

5.7 Entropy Generation (Closed System)

5.8 Entropy Generation for anopen system

5.9 Exergy or Availability or work-potential

5.10 Reversible work and irreversibility

5.11 Second – Law Efficiency

5.12 Availability of a closed system

5.13 Availability in a steady Flow process

5.14 The TDS Relations

5.15 Isentropic Efficiencies

5.16 Entropy Generation for a Control Volume

5.17 Available Energy and Unavailable Energy

**Chapter 6 Properties of Pure Substances**

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Property Diagrams for Simple Compressible Substance

6.3 Definitions

6.4 Specific Properties of Pure Substances

6.5 T-s, h-s, and P-h Diagrams for a Pure Substance

6.6 P-V-T surfaces

6.7 Determination of Dryness Fraction (x) of Steam in a Laboratory

**Chapter 7 Ideal Gases and Gas Mixtures**

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Definitions of Certain Terms

7.3 Change in Internal Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy for an Ideal Gas

7.4 Heat and Work for an Ideal Gas with Various

Quasi-Static Processes

7.5 Mixture of Ideal Gases

7.5.1 Definitions of Certain Terms

7.5.2 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

7.5.3 Amagat-Leduc Law of Additive Volumes

7.5.4 Density of a Gas Mixture

7.5.5 Relation among Partial Pressure, Partial Volume, and Mole

Fraction of Individual Gases of a Mixture

7.5.6 Gas Constant of a Mixture in terms of Mass Fraction

7.5.7 Molecular Weight of the Mixture in terms of Mass Fraction

7.5.8 Gas Constant of the Mixture in terms of Mole Fraction

7.5.9 Properties of Gas Mixture – Gibbs−Dalton Theorem

7.5.10 Specific Heats of a Gas Mixture

**Chapter 8 Thermodynamic Property Relations**

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Maxwell’s Relations

8.3 Clapeyron Equation

8.4 General Relations for du, dh, ds, cv and cp

8.5 Joule−Thomson Coefficient

8.5.1 Relation for Joule−Thomson Coefficient

**Chapter 9 Real Gases**

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Compressibility Factor

9.3 Equations of State for Real Gases

**Chapter 10 Combustion Thermodynamics**

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion

10.3 Heating Value

10.4 Adiabatic Flame Temperature

**Chapter 11 Testing of IC Engines**

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Torque, Power, and their Measurements

11.2.1 Air Consumption Measurement

11.3 Frictional Power Measurement

11.4 Performance Parameters

**Chapter 12 Refrigeration**

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Air Refrigeration System

12.3 Reversed Brayton Cycle

12.4 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCR)

12.4.1 Factors Affecting the Performance of Vapour Compression

System

12.5 Volumetric Efficiency

12.6 Desirable Properties of an Ideal Refrigerant

12.7 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System (NH3-Water)

**Chapter 13 Psychrometrics**

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Definitions

13.3 Important Equations to Remember

13.4 The Psychrometric Chart

**Chapter 14 Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion**

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Major Fields of Application of Gas Turbines

14.3 Classification of Gas Turbines

14.4 Merits of Gas Turbines

14.5 Constant Pressure Combustion Gas Turbines

14.6 Methods for Improvement of Thermal Efficiency of Open Cycle Gas

Turbine Plant

14.7 Effect of Operating Variables on ηth

14.8 Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (Joule Cycle)

14.8.1 Optimum Pressure Ratio for Maximum Work

14.9 Jet Propulsion

14.9.1 Turbojet Engine

14.9.2 Basic Cycle for Turbojet

14.9.3 Thrust, Thrust Power, Propulsive Efficiency _ηp) and

Thermal Efficiency

14.10 Turboprop Engine

14.11 Ramjet Engine

14.12 Turbofan

14.13 Pulsejet Engine

14.14 Rocket Engines

**Chapter 15 Gas Power Cycles**

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Carnot Cycle

15.3 Constant Volume or Otto Cycle

15.4 Mean Effective Pressure (Pm)

15.5 Constant Pressure or Diesel Cycle

15.6 Dual Combustion Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle or Mixed Cycle)

15.7 Comparison of Otto, Diesel, and Dual

Combustion Cycles

15.8 Atkinson Cycle on P-V Diagram

15.9 The Stirling Cycle

**Chapter 16 Reciprocating Air Compressor**

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Applications of Compressed Air

16.3 Reciprocating Compressor Terminology

16.4 Working of a Single-acting Air Compressor (Without Clearance)

16.5 Three Types of Compression Processes

16.6 Compressor Efficiencies

16.7 Clearance Volume in a Compressor

16.7.1 Indicated Compression Work With Clearance

16.7.2 Actual Indicator Diagram

16.7.3 Volumetric Efficiency

16.7.4 Factors that Lower Volumetric Efficiency

16.8 Free Air Delivery (FAD)

16.9 Limitations of Single-Stage Compression

16.10 Multistage Compression

16.10.1 Work Done in Multistage Compressor with Intercooler

16.10.2 Heat Rejected Per Stage of Compression

16.10.3 Condition for Minimum Compression Work (Optimum

Intermediate Pressure)

16.10.4 Minimum Compression Work Input For Two-Stage

Compression

**Chapter 17 Vapour Power Cycles**

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Carnot Vapour Power Cycle

17.3 Ideal Rankine Cycle

17.4 Practical Rankine Cycle

17.5 Methods to Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle

17.6 Reheat Rankine Cycle

17.7 Super Critical Rankine Cycle

17.8 Regenerative Rankine Cycle

17.9 Binary Vapour Cycle

17.10Combined Gas-Vapour Power Cycle

**• Bibliography**

## About The Author

**Dr. G. S. Bhat** is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Acharya Institute of Technology, Bengaluru. He obtained his Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from National Institute of Engineering, Mysore in 1985, Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Thermal Engineering from University of Texas Arlington, United States of America in 1993, and Ph.D in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Thermal Engineering from Anna University in 2011. He has been teaching Basic and Applied Thermodynamics since 1986. He has guided many innovative projects for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. He has been conferred with Albert Nelson Lifetime Achievement Award from USA for Engineering Teaching in 2018.

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