Metrology and Measurements

295

Author: Annamalai

ISBN: 9789388005463

Copy Right Year: 2020

Pages:  346

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

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Description

This book on Metrology and Measurements provides a simplified approach to understanding the science of measurements and the use of various types of instruments. This book is a blend of the Author’s theoretical knowledge from academia and practical knowledge from industry. It flows in the order of Anna University’s unit wise syllabus (R 2017).

Additional information

Weight 0.4 kg
Dimensions 23 × 15 × 2 cm

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Basics of Metrology

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Need for Metrology
1.3 Units and Standards
1.3.1 Types of Standards
1.4 Standardisation
1.5 Legal Metrology
1.5.1 Legal Metrology in India
1.6 General Measurement System
1.7 Characteristics of a Measuring Instrument
1.7.1 Range
1.7.2 Sensitivity
1.7.3 Precision and Accuracy
1.7.4 Reliability and Repeatability
1.7.5 Response Time
1.7.6 Hysteresis
1.7.7 Bias
1.7.8 Error
1.7.9 Calibration
1.7.10 Dynamic Response and Damping
1.8 Methods of Measurement
1.8.1 Classification of Methods of Measurement
1.9 Types of Errors
1.9.1 Systemic Error
1.9.2 Random Error
1.10 Sources of Error− Factors that Affect the Accuracy and Precision of
Measurement 14
1.10.1 Condition of the Work piece
1.10.2 Condition of the Instruments
1.10.3 Methods Used by Persons
1.10.4 Environment
1.11 Developments in Metrology

Chapter 2 Linear Measurements

2.1 Linear Measuring Instruments
2.2 The Evolution of Linear Measuring Instruments
2.2.1 Evolution in Accuracy
2.2.2 Evolution to Suit Specific Dimension/Specific Work piece
2.2.3 Developments for Mass Usage
2.3 Detailed Description of Some Important Linear Measuring
Instruments
2.3.1 Vernier Caliper -Construction and Use
2.3.2 Vernier Height Gauge
2.3.3 Vernier Depth Gauge
2.3.4 Micrometer
2.3.5 Depth Measuring Micrometer
2.4 Achievable Dimensional Accuracy in Manufacturing
2.4.1 Tolerance
2.4.2 Limits
2.5 Interchangeability
2.6 Selective Assembly
2.7 Fit
2.7.1 Types of Fit
2.8 ISO System of Tolerancing
2.8.1 Choosing the Tolerance Number
2.8.2 Choosing a Letter Grade
2.9 Dimensional Limits and Their Use
2.9.1 Limit Gauges
2.10 Taylor’s Principle of Gauge Design
2.10.1 Gauge Design Problems
2.11 Slip Gauges
2.11.1 Need of Slip Gauges
2.11.2 Grades of Accuracy of Slip Gauges
2.11.3 Slip Gauges Sets
2.11.4 Building a Size Using Slip Gauge
2.11.5 Protective Slips
2.11.6 Wringing
2.11.7 Manufacturing of Slip Gauges
2.11.8 Uses of Slip Gauges
2.12 Comparators
2.12.1 Mechanical Comparators
2.12.2 Optical Comparator
2.12.3 Pneumatic Comparator
2.12.4 Electrical Comparators

Chapter 3 Angular Measuring Instruments

3.1 Angle
3.1.1 Normal Protractor
3.2 Bevel Protractor
3.2.1 The First Reference Edge
3.2.2 The Second Reference Edge
3.2.3 Making a Measurement
3.2.4 Taking a Reading (Variations in Models)
3.2.5 A Simpler Explanation of Bevel Protractor
3.3 Spirit Level
3.4 Angle Gauge
3.5 Angle Alignment Telescope
3.6 Sine Bar
3.7 Sine Table
3.8 Sine Centre
3.9 Clinometer
3.10 Autocollimator
3.11 Angle Dekkor

Chapter 4 Advances in Metrology – Laser Metrology

4.1 Laser Basics
4.1.1 Laser Components
4.1.2 Specific Laser Types
4.1.3 Interference
4.1.4 Concept of Path Difference
4.1.5 Condition of Interference
4.2 Michelson Interferometer
4.3 Twyman−Green Modification of Michelson Interferometer
4.4 Fabry−P´erot Interferometer
4.5 Indars Flatness Measurement Interferometer
4.6 Single Frequency DC Interferometer System
4.7 Homodyne Interferometers
4.8 Heterodyne Interferometers (AC Interferometer)
4.9 Fizeau Interferometer
4.10 Mirau Interferometer (Phase Shift Interferometer)
4.11 The Mach−Zehnder Interferometer
4.12 Checking Slip Gages
4.13 Measurement of Flatness
4.14 Measurement of Straightness
4.15 Laser Alignment
4.16 Laser Telemetry
Chapter 5 Basics of CMM

5.1 Concept of CMM
5.2 CMM
5.2.1 Axial Movement System
5.2.2 Probing System
5.2.3 Software
5.3 Calibration of CMM
5.4 Uses of CMM
5.5 Measurement Strategy
5.6 Computer Aided Manufacturing
5.7 Types of CMM
5.7.1 Moving Bridge CMM
5.7.2 Fixed Bridge CMM
5.7.3 Cantilever CMM
5.7.4 Horizontal Arm CMM
5.7.5 Gantry CMM
5.7.6 Column CMM
5.8 Machine Vision
5.8.1 Advantages of Machine Vision
5.8.2 Elements of a MV System
5.8.3 Application of MV
5.8.4 Types of MV Systems

Chapter 6 Form Measurement

6.1 Form
6.2 Straightness and Checking for Straightness
6.2.1 Straightness Checking Using a Straight Edge
6.2.2 Straightness Checking Using a Spirit Level
6.2.3 Straightness Measurement by Autocollimator
6.3 Flatness
6.3.1 Flatness Testing by Dial Gauge
6.3.2 Flatness Testing by NPL Method of Interferometry
6.3.3 Surface Plate
6.4 Surface Finish
6.4.1 Importance of Surface Roughness
6.4.2 Expressions of Surface Roughness
6.4.3 Application of Various Parameters of Surface Measurement
6.5 Measuring Surface Roughness
6.5.1 Physical Comparison
6.5.2 Instrument Based Measurement
6.5.3 Principle of a Contacting Stylus Instrument Profilometer
6.5.4 Taylor Hobson Talysurf
6.5.5 Tomilson Surface Meter
6.5.6 Profilometer
6.6 Roundness Testing

Chapter 7 Thread and Gear Measurement

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Screw Thread Basics
7.2.1 Screw Thread Terminologies
7.2.2 Types of Screw Threads
7.2.3 Parameters for Measurement in Screw Thread
7.3 Measurement of Screw Threads
7.3.1 Measurement of Major Diameter by Micrometer (Manual)
7.3.2 Measurement of Major Diameter by Bench Micrometer
7.3.3 Measurement of Core Diameter
7.3.4 Measurement of Effective Diameter
7.3.5 Floating Carriage Micrometer for Thread Measurement
7.3.6 Measurement of Pitch
7.3.7 Errors in Screws
7.4 Gear Terminologies
7.4.1 Measurement of Tooth Thickness
7.4.2 Functional Gear Testing

Chapter 8 Force, Torque, Power, Flow and Temperature
Measurement

8.1 Force, Torque and Power
8.1.1 Linear Power
8.1.2 Rotational Power
8.2 Measurement of Force
8.2.1 Mechanical Method –Proving Ring
8.2.2 Mechanical and Electrical Method
8.2.3 Pnuematic Method
8.3 Torque Definition
8.3.1 Torque Measurement
8.3.2 Transmission Dynamometers
8.3.3 Torque Measurement by Electrical Method (Strain Gauge Method)
8.4 Flow Measurement
8.4.1 Orifice
8.4.2 Flow Nozzles
8.4.3 Venturi Tube
8.4.4 Variable Area Flowmeter or Rotameter
8.4.5 Velocity Flowmeters
8.4.6 Pitot Tube
8.5 Temperature Measurement
8.5.1 Temperature Measurement by Mechanical Effects
8.5.2 Temperature Measurement by Electrical Effects
8.6 Pyrometer
8.7 Reliability
8.8 Calibration
8.8.1 Purpose of a Calibration
8.9 Readability and Reliability

Appendix A   University Examination Question Papers
Appendix B   Multiple Choice Questions
Appendix C   NBA Related Information for Faculty

About the Author

Dr. V. E. Annamalai, is Principal, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Chennai. He has a Ph.D. in Cutting Tools from Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. His total experience spans thirty-two years which includes sixteen years in Industry and sixteen years in Teaching. He has published fifty-five papers in International Journals and presented at thirty conferences. He has eight patents to his credit. He has also established the Industry Institute Partnership Cell at SSN College of Engineering, which is sponsored by AICTE. Prior to joining Academics, he was Vice President, Technology at Carborundum Universal Ltd, Thiruvottiyur, which is a unit of Murugappa Group.

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