Basic Electrical Engineering with MATLAB

995

Authors: Dash, Saroj K, Smruti R Khuntia

ISBN: 9789380381527

Copy Right Year: 2016

Pages:  1134

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

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Description

This book is written to fulfill the requirements of the course curriculum in Basic Electrical Engineering for all the undergraduate engineering students. The text covers modules of the syllabus corresponding to basic electrical circuit, DC networks, Transient analysis, Magnetic circuit, Dc machine, Single phase AC Circuits, 3-phase AC circuits, Transformers, Single phase induction motor, Three phase induction motor, Measuring instruments, Power system and Transducer. It explains physical and mathematical aspects of the highly indispensable Basic Electrical Engineering in a very simple and lucid manner.

Additional information

Weight 1.6 kg
Dimensions 23 × 17 × 5 cm

Table of Content

Chapter – 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Charge
1.2.1 Positive Charge
1.2.2 Negative Charge
1.3 Insulators, Semiconductors and Conductors
1.3.1 Insulators
1.3.2 Semiconductors
1.3.3 Conductors
1.4 Electron Flow in Conductors
1.5 Electric Circuits
1.6 Current
1.6.1 Conduction or Convention Current
1.6.2 Convection Current
1.6.3 Displacement Current
1.7 Coulomb’s Law
1.8 Electric Field
1.8.1 Electric Field Intensity (E)
1.8.2 Electric Flux Density
1.9 Electric Potential
1.9.1 Potential at a Point for a Generalized System
1.9.2 Potential Difference between Two Points
1.10 Types of Electrical Sources
1.10.1 Ideal and Practical Voltage Sources
1.10.2 Ideal and Practical Current Sources
1.10.3 Dependent and Independent Sources
1.11 Source Conversion
1.12 Electro Motive Force (E.M.F )
1.12.1 Induced E.M.F
1.12.2 Motional E.M.F
1.12.3 Faraday E.M.F
1.12.4 Simultaneously Induced E.M.F
1.13 Elements
1.13.1 Resistors
1.13.2 Inductors
1.13.3 Capacitors
1.14 Impedance, Admittance, Conductance and Susceptance
1.15 Super Conductivity
1.16 Basic Terminology Associated with a Network
1.16.1 Node
1.16.2 Branch
1.16.3 Network
1.16.4 Mesh
1.16.5 Loop
1.17 Properties of Network
1.18 Current Division Formula
1.19 Voltage Division Formula
1.20 Power
1.20.1 Power for Parallel Combination
1.20.2 Power for Series Combination
1.21 Types of Power in Electric Circuit
1.22 Rectangular and Polar Coordinate System
1.22.1 Conversion from Rectangular to Polar
1.22.2 Conversion from Polar to Rectangular
1.22.3 Properties of Vectors
1.23 Types of Load
1.23.1 Resistive Load
1.23.2 Purely Resistive Load
1.23.3 Inductive Load
1.23.4 Purely Inductive Load
1.23.5 Capacitive Load
1.23.6 Purely Capacitive Load
1.24 Electric Circuit
1.24.1 Open-circuit
1.24.2 Short-circuit
Chapter – 2 DC NETWORKS
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws
2.2.1 First Law (Kirchhoff’s Junction Law or Nodal Analysis or KCL)
2.2.2 Second Law (Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law or Mesh Law or Mesh Analysis
or KVL)
2.2.3 Concept of Super-node
2.2.4 Concept of Super-mesh
2.3 Comparison between E.M.F. and Terminal Potential Difference
2.4 Resistances in Delta and Star
2.4.1 Transformation of Delta Resistance to Star Resistance
2.4.2 Transformation of Star Resistance to Delta Resistance
2.4.3 Delta Connection
2.4.4 Star Connection
2.5 Equal Potential Method
2.6 Superposition Theorem
2.6.1 Proof of Superposition Theorem
2.7 Thevenin’s Theorem
2.7.1 Proof of the Thevenin’s Theorem
2.7.2 General Instructions for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
2.8 Norton’s Theorem
2.8.1 Proof of Norton’s Theorem
2.9 Maxwell’s Loop Current Method
2.10 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
2.11 Millman’s Theorem
2.12 Substitution Theorem
2.12.1 Proof of Substitution Theorem
2.13 Compensation Theorem
2.14 Reciprocity Theorem
2.15 Tellegen’s Theorem
2.16 Insulator Breakdown Voltage
Chapter – 3 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Transient
3.3 Transient Response in First-order Circuits
3.3.1 Transient in R-L Circuits
3.3.2 Transient in R-C Circuits
3.4 Transient Response of Second-order Circuits
3.4.1 Deriving Differential Equations for Second-order Circuits
3.4.2 Solution of Second-order Circuits
3.5 Elements of the Transient Response
3.6 Natural Response of Second-order System
3.6.1 Over-damped Solution
3.6.2 Critically-damped Solution
3.6.3 Under-damped Solution
3.7 Forced Response of Second-order System
3.8 Complete Response
3.9 Methodology for Solution of Second-order Circuits
3.10 Transient Response of Automotive Ignition Circuits
Chapter – 4 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Hysteresis Loop
4.3 Flux
4.3.1 Electric Flux
4.3.2 Electric Flux Density
4.3.3 Magnetic Flux
4.3.4 Magnetic Flux Density
4.4 Laws of Magnetic Force
4.5 Properties of Magnetic Field
4.5.1 Magnetizing Force or Magnetic Field Intensity
4.5.2 Permeability
4.5.3 Intensity of Magnetization
4.5.4 Magnetic Susceptibility
4.5.5 Relation Connecting Permeability, Intensity of Magnetization,
Magnetizing Force and Magnetic Flux Density
4.5.6 Magnetic Potential
4.5.7 Works Law or Ampere’s Law
4.5.8 Magnetic Flux Density due to Infinite Solenoid
4.5.9 Magnetic Field Intensity for Infinite Straight Current Carrying Conductor
4.5.10 Laws of Parallel Current
4.6 Comparison of Electric Circuit and Magnetic Circuit
4.7 Hopkinson’s Leakage Coefficient
4.8 Steinmetz’s Empirical Formula for Hysteresis Loss
4.9 Different Types of Losses
4.9.1 Eddy Current Loss
4.9.2 Iron Loss
4.9.3 Copper Loss
Chapter – 5 DC MACHINES
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Construction of DC Machine
5.2.1 Field System
5.2.2 Armature System
5.2.3 Auxiliary System for DC Machine
5.3 Types of DC Machines
5.3.1 Separately Excited DC Machine
5.3.2 Self Excited DC Machine
5.4 Basic Principle of DC Generator
5.5 E.M.F. Equation of DC Machine (Generator and Motor)
5.6 Generator Characteristics for Shunt Generator
5.6.1 Open-circuit Characteristic of DC Shunt Generator
5.6.2 Internal Characteristic
5.7 Armature Reaction
5.8 DC Motors
5.8.1 Basic Principle
5.8.2 Properties of DC Motors
5.9 Starters
5.9.1 Three-point Starter
5.9.2 Four-point Starter
5.10 Torque of Motor and Armature Power
5.11 Frictional Lose Power (PL)
5.12 Losses in DC Machine
5.13 Properties of DC Shunt Motor
5.13.1 Mechanical Characteristic
5.13.2 Electrical Characteristics of Shunt Motors
5.13.3 Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor
5.14 Power Stage Diagram of Generator and Motor
5.15 BLDC Motors (Brushless DC)
5.15.1 Construction and Operating Principle
5.15.2 I/O Link of BLDC Motor
5.15.3 Applications of BLDC Motor
Chapter – 6 SINGLE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Generation of AC Voltage
6.3 Properties of Alternating Quantity
6.3.1 RMS Value of Alternating Quantity
6.3.2 Average Value of Alternating Quantity
6.3.3 Form Factor for Alternating Quantity
6.3.4 Peak or Amplitude or Crest Factor for Alternating Quantity
6.3.5 AC through Resistance
6.3.6 AC through Purely Inductive Load
6.3.7 AC through Purely Capacitive Load
6.3.8 AC through Series R-L Circuit
6.3.9 AC through Series R-C Circuit
6.3.10 AC through Series R-L-C Network
6.3.11 Resonance in Series R-L-C Circuit
6.3.12 Series Resonance Curves
6.4 Admittance in Series and Parallel
Chapter – 7 THREE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Generation of Three-phase AC
7.3 Properties of Three-phase AC Circuits
7.3.1 Delta (Δ) and Star (Y) Impedance
7.3.2 Angle between Line Voltage and Phase Current
7.3.3 Phase Sequence
7.3.4 Relation between Line Voltage/Current and Phase Voltage/Current
7.4 Power Measurement in Three-phase Systems by Wattmeter
7.4.1 3φ Power Measurement by Three Wattmeter Method
7.4.2 Power Measurement by Two Wattmeter Method (for Balanced as well as
Unbalanced Load)
7.4.3 3φ Power Measurement by Two Wattmeter Method
(for Balanced Load)
7.4.4 Three-phase Power Measurement by One Wattmeter Method
7.5 Power Factor in Terms of Wattmeter Readings
Chapter – 8 TRANSFORMERS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Transformers
8.2.1 Basic Principle of Transformer on Load
8.3 Classification of Transformer
8.3.1 Core-type Transformers
8.3.2 Single-phase Shell-type Transformers
8.3.3 Three-phase Transformers
8.3.4 Step-up Transformer
8.3.5 Step-down Transformer
8.3.6 Auto Transformer
8.4 E.M.F. Equation of Single-phase Transformer
8.5 Ideal Transformer
8.5.1 Properties of Ideal Transformers
8.6 Total Copper Loss in Transformers
8.7 Relation between R_
1 and R1
8.8 Relation between R_
2 and R2
8.9 Relation between X_
1 and X1
8.10 Relation between X_
2 and X2
8.11 Output of Transformers at any Load
8.12 Efficiency of Transformer
8.13 Voltage Regulation of Transformer
8.13.1 Condition for Minimum Voltage Regulation
8.13.2 Condition for Maximum Voltage Regulation
8.14 Transformer Equivalent Circuit
8.15 Open-circuit Test of Transformer
8.16 Short-circuit Test of Transformer
8.17 Applications of Transformers
8.17.1 Impedance Matching
8.17.2 Potential Transformer and Current Transformer
Chapter – 9 SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Basic Principles of Single-phase Induction Motor
9.2.1 Forward Rotating Torque and Backward Rotating Torque
9.2.2 Torque Slip Characteristics
9.2.3 Torque Speed Characteristics
9.3 Permanent-split Capacitor Motor
9.4 Capacitor-start Induction Motor
9.4.1 Motor Characteristics
9.4.2 Applications
9.5 Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Induction Motor (or Two-value Capacitor Motor)
9.5.1 Motor Characteristics
9.5.2 Applications
9.6 Resistance Start Split-phase Induction Motor
9.6.1 Motor Characteristics
9.6.2 Applications
9.7 Equivalent Circuit of Single-phase Induction Motor
9.7.1 Equivalent Circuit of Single-phase Induction Motor without Core Loss
9.7.2 Equivalent Circuit of Single-phase Induction Motor with Core Loss
9.8 Shaded-pole Induction Motor
9.9 Stepper Motor
9.9.1 Stepper Motor Characteristics
9.9.2 Types of Stepper Motors
9.9.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Stepper Motors
9.10 Servo Motor
9.11 Two-phase Servo Motor
9.11.1 Applications of AC Servo Motor
9.11.2 Description of AC Servo Motors
9.12 AC Commutator Motor
9.13 Compensated AC Series Motors
9.14 Universal Motors or AC Series Motor
9.14.1 Characteristics of Universal Motors
9.15 Repulsion Start Induction Motor
9.16 Single-phase Synchronous Motor
9.16.1 Reluctance-type Synchronous Motors
9.16.2 Hysteresis-type Synchronous Motor
Chapter – 10 THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Construction of Three-phase Induction Motor
10.2.1 Stator
10.2.2 Rotor
10.3 Properties of Three-phase Induction Motor
10.3.1 Starting Torque of Three-phase Induction Motors
10.3.2 Running Torque (Tr) of Three-phase Induction Motor
10.3.3 Basic Principles of Three-phase Induction Motor
10.3.4 Slips
10.3.5 Rotor Frequency during Running Condition
10.3.6 Torque Slip and Torque Speed Characteristics
10.3.7 Condition for Maximum Starting Torque
10.3.8 Condition for Maximum Running Torque
10.3.9 Ratio of Starting Torque to Maximum (Maximum Running) Torque
10.3.10 Ratio of Full-load Torque to Maximum Torque
10.3.11 Relation between Rotor Input, Output and Copper Loss
10.3.12 Ratio of Rotor Input to Rotor Output
10.3.13 Ratio of Rotor Output to Rotor Copper Loss
10.4 Power Stage Diagram
10.5 Methods of Starting the Three-phase Induction Motor
10.5.1 Direct-on-line Type Starter
10.5.2 Primary-resistor Type Starter
10.5.3 Autotransformer Type Starter
10.5.4 Star-delta Starter
10.5.5 Rotor Resistance Type Starters for Slip-ring Motor
10.6 Speed Control of Three-phase Induction Motor
10.7 Electrical Braking Methods
10.7.1 Regenerative Braking
10.7.2 Plugging
10.7.3 Dynamic Braking
Chapter – 11 MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument
11.2.1 Basic Principle of PMMC Instrument
11.2.2 Torque Equation of PMMC
11.2.3 Applications of PMMC Meter
11.2.4 Advantages of PMMC Instruments
11.2.5 Disadvantages of PMMC Instruments
11.3 Single-phase Induction Type Energy Meters
11.3.1 Construction of Induction Type of Energy Meter
11.4 Moving Iron Instrument
11.4.1 Types of Moving Iron Instrument
11.4.2 Properties of Moving Iron Instruments
11.4.3 Moving Iron Instrument as Ammeter
11.4.4 Moving Iron Instrument as Voltmeter
11.5 Electro-dynamometer Type Wattmeter
11.5.1 Construction and Basic Principle of Electro-dynamometer Type
Wattmeter
11.5.2 Torque Equation for Dynamometer
11.5.3 Properties of Dynamometer
11.6 Digital Voltmeter (DVM)
11.7 Multimeter
Chapter – 12 POWER SYSTEMS
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Thermal Power Stations
12.2.1 Salient Features of Thermal Power Plants
12.2.2 Components of Thermal Power Plants
12.2.3 Basic Principle
12.3 Nuclear Power Stations
12.3.1 Salient Features of Nuclear Power Stations
12.3.2 Components of Nuclear Power Stations
12.3.3 Basic Principle
12.4 Hydel Power Stations
12.4.1 Salient Features of Hydroelectric Power Plants
12.4.2 Components of Hydel Power Stations
12.4.3 Basic Principle
12.5 Electrical Faults
12.5.1 Computation of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Faults in Sequence
Network
Chapter – 13 TRANSDUCERS
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Transducer Classification
13.2.1 Classification based on Technology
13.2.2 Classification based on Measured Value
13.2.3 Classification based on Energy
13.2.4 Classification based on Output
13.3 Resistive Transducers
13.4 Inductive Transducers
13.5 Capacitive Transducers
13.5.1 The Equivalent Circuits
13.6 Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
13.7 Angular Displacement Transducers (SYNCHRO)
13.8 Piezoelectric Transducers
13.9 Photoelectric Transducers
13.9.1 Basic Principle
13.9.2 Classification
13.10 Hall Effect Transducers
13.11 Temperature Transducers
13.11.1 Thermocouples
13.11.2 RTD (Resistance Temperature Detectors)
13.11.3 Thermistors
13.11.4 Integrated Circuit IC Sensors
13.12 Force Transducers
13.12.1 Acceleration Transducers
13.12.2 Velocity Transducers
13.13 Torque Transducers
13.13.1 Torque Measurement by Strain Gauges
13.13.2 Torque Measurement by Inductive Transducers
13.13.3 Torque Measurement with Magnetostrictive Transducers
13.13.4 Measurement of Torque using Electronic Techniques
13.13.5 Torque Measurement by Strain Gauged Load Cells
13.13.6 Electric Torque Measurement
13.14 Signal Conversions
13.15 Analog-to-Digital Conversion
13.16 Digital-to-Analogue Conversion
Chapter – 14 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Basic Principle
14.3 Classification of Synchronous Machines
14.4 Construction
14.5 Induced E.M.F
14.6 Characteristics of Synchronous Generators
14.6.1 Open-circuit Characteristics or Magnetization Curve
14.6.2 Short-circuit Characteristics
14.6.3 Load Characteristics
14.6.4 Maximum Power Output for Different Values of Ra
14.7 Blondel’s Two Reaction Theory
14.7.1 Voltage Regulation
14.8 Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators
14.9 Parallel-generator Theorem
14.10 Synchronizing Power (Ps)
Chapter – 15 BATTERIES AND SAFETY PROTECTION
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Primary Cells
15.3 Activity of Electrons in Chemical Reactions
15.4 Secondary Cells (Storage Cells)
15.4.1 Lead Acid Accumulators
15.4.2 Edison Nickel-Iron Alkaline Accumulators
15.4.3 Nickel-Cadmium Accumulators
15.5 Battery Construction
15.6 Battery Ratings
15.7 Special-purpose Batteries
15.8 Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis
15.9 Grouping of Cells
15.9.1 Series Grouping
15.9.2 Parallel Grouping
15.9.3 Mixed Grouping
15.10 Practical Considerations
15.11 Safety Protection
15.12 Precautions for Different Place of Work
15.12.1 Working on Overhead Lines
15.12.2 Working on Ladders
15.12.3 Replacing Blown Fuse
15.12.4 In Case of Fire
15.12.5 Preparing the Electrolyte and Battery Charging
15.13 Electric Shocks
Chapter – 16 WIRING AND ILLUMINATION
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Wiring
16.3 Different System of Wiring
16.3.1 Tree Systems
16.3.2 Distribution Systems
16.4 Electrical Appliances Connection Systems
16.4.1 T-connections
16.4.2 Looping Connections
16.5 Circuit Diagram of House Wirings
16.5.1 Rules for Wiring
16.6 Systems of Wiring used for Domestic Purposes
16.6.1 Cleat Wirings
16.6.2 C.T.S. Wirings
16.6.3 Lead-sheathed or Covered Wiring
16.6.4 Casing-capping Wirings
16.6.5 Conduit Pipe Wirings
16.7 Testing of Wiring
16.8 Faults likely to Occur in Wiring
16.8.1 Blown of Fuse
16.8.2 Short-circuit
16.8.3 Open-circuit
16.8.4 Leakage
16.8.5 Earthing
16.9 Indian Electricity Rules for Wiring
16.10 Calculating Current and Power of Cables
16.11 Wiring Estimation
16.12 Earthing
16.13 Types of Earthing
16.13.1 Plate Earthing
16.13.2 Pipe Earthing
16.14 Rules for Earthing
16.15 Double Earthing and its Advantages
16.16 Factors Effecting Earthing
16.17 Methods to Improve Value of Earth Resistances
16.18 Short Notes
16.19 Measurement of Earth Resistance
16.20 Illuminations
16.21 Definitions in Illumination
16.22 Properties of Good Illumination
16.23 Advantages of Good Illumination
16.24 Laws of Illumination
16.24.1 Inverse Square Law
16.24.2 Lambert’s Cosine Law
16.25 Electric Lamps
16.25.1 Incandescent Lamps
16.25.2 Luminescent or Gas Discharge Lamps
16.25.3 Carbon Arc Lamps
16.25.4 Neon Lamps
16.26 Neon Sign Tubes
16.27 Halogen Lamps
16.28 S and N Lamps
16.29 Types of Lighting Schemes
16.29.1 Design of Lighting Schemes
16.29.2 Methods of Lighting Calculations
16.30 Illumination Levels
Appendix A−Solved Model Question Papers (1−14)
Appendix B−MATLAB
Appendix C−Common Electrical Formulas
Appendix D−Definitions of Electrical Terms
Appendix E−Conversion Factors for SI Units
Appendix F
Appendix G−Electrical Quantities − Symbols and Units

Appendix H−Electrical Tables
Appendix I−Solution for Chapter-end Problems
Index

About The Author

Saroj K Dash, is Professor and Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, Gandhi Institute For Technological Advancement (GITA), an affiliated College of Biju Pattnaik University of Technology. Dr. Dash has published several papers in International and National Journals. He is also a recipient of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Memorial Prize (Gold Medal) and Union Ministry of Power Prize (Gold Medal) for two of his research papers on Multi-objective Generation Dispatch using Neuro Fuzzy Technique.

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