Energy And Environment – From Cradle To Grave

395

Authors: Vaidyanathan G, Purniah B

ISBN: 9789388005166

Copy Right Year: 2020

Pages:  352

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

SKU: 9789388005166 Category:

Description

Energy and Environment is a must read for students pursuing environment as an elective in the science stream. Focus on environment is the key feature of this book. It begins with a chapter on the need for energy and briefly introduces the various generation techniques and important environmental issues. It then deals with the different power generation technologies viz. Coal, Hydro, Petroleum, Biomass, Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Nuclear, bringing out the features of energy generation and related environmental issues. Energy storage technologies and related environmental issues have been specifically dealt in detail. The text ends with a comparative study of the different technologies and brings out techniques that should influence decision making.

Additional information

Weight .45 kg
Dimensions 23 × 16 × 2 cm

Table of Content

Chapter 1 Need for Energy
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Human Development
1.3 Classification of Energy Resources
1.3.1 Coal
1.3.2 Petroleum
1.3.3 Natural Gas
1.3.4 Hydro Power
1.3.5 Solar Energy
1.3.6 Biomass
1.3.7 Wave Energy
1.3.8 Tidal Energy
1.3.9 Wind Energy
1.3.10 Geothermal Energy
1.3.11 Magneto Hydrodynamics (MHD)
1.3.12 Hydrogen as a Fuel
1.4 Over view of Energy Resources
1.5 Environment
1.6 Water Energy Nexus
1.7 Energy Security and International Trade
Chapter 2 Principles of Energy Conversion
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Forms of Energy
2.2.1 Mechanical Energy
2.2.2 Energy of Atoms and Molecules
2.2.3 Chemical and Nuclear Energy
2.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Energy
2.2.5 Total Energy
2.3 Concept of Reversibility
2.4 The Steam Cycle
2.4.1 Rankine  Cycle
2.4.2 Reheat Cycle
2.4.3 Regenerative Cycle
2.5 The Automobile Cycle
2.6 The Brayton Cycle
2.7 Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles
Chapter 3 Energy From Coal
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Coal Reserves
3.3 Coal Mining
3.4 Coal Transportation
3.5 Coal Use in Power Generation
3.5.1 Coal Handling
3.5.2 Boiler
3.5.3 Steam Turbine
3.5.4 Condenser Cooling
3.5.5 Make up Water and Deaerator
3.5.6 Flue Gas and Ash Handling
3.6 Flue Gas Treatment
3.6.1 Particulate Control
3.6.2 〖NO〗_x Removal
3.6.3 〖SO〗_2 Control
3.6.4 〖SO〗_3/H_2 〖SO〗_4 Control
3.7 Coal Liquefaction
3.8 Heat Balance
3.9 Impact on Environment
3.9.1 Air Pollution
3.9.2 Water Pollution
3.9.3 Impact on Plants and Animals
3.9.4 Indirect Environmental Impacts
3.9.5 Deaths and Health Effects
3.10 Thermal pollution
3.11 Clean Coal Technology
Chapter 4 Power From Water
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Hydroelectric Plant
4.2.1 Hydroelectric Resources
4.2.2 Issues with Hydropower
4.3 Tidal Power
4.3.1 Issues with Tidal Systems
4.4 Ocean Currents
4.4.1 Issues with Ocean Currents
4.5 Wave Energy
4.5.1 Offshore Wave Dragon System
4.5.2 Oscillating Water Column
4.5.3 Float or Buoy Systems
4.5.4 Issues with Wave Energy
4.6 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
4.6.1 Issues with OTEC
Chapter 5 Petroleum – Oil and Natural Gas
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Resources
5.3 Drilling Oil Wells
5.3.1 Getting the Oil Out
5.3.2 Ultra Deepwater Operations
5.4 Uses for Petroleum
5.5 Environmental Issues
5.5.1 Oil and Gas Pollution
5.5.2 Environmental Effect of Drilling Fluid
5.5.3 Environmental Effect of Seismic Activities
5.5.4 Environmental Effect of Oil Spills into the Seas
5.5.5 Landscape Changes from Well Pads and Roads
5.5.6 Haze, Toxic Chemicals and Dust Pollute the Air and Water
5.5.7 Transportation of Petroleum
5.6 Shale Oil/Gas
5.6.1 Environmental Issues with Shale Oil/Gas
5.7 Global Warming Emissions-Natural Gas
5.8 Air Pollution – Natural Gas
Chapter 6  Biofuels
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Biomass as a Form of Solar Energy
6.3 Biofuels
6.3.1 Gasohol/Ethanol
6.3.2 Biodiesel
6.3.3 Ethanol
6.4 Energy Crops
6.4.1 Woody Crops
6.4.2 Agricultural Crops
6.4.3 Algae
6.4.4 Yield of
6.5 Co-Products in Biomass Production
6.6 Issues with Biomass
6.6.1 Land Use
6.6.2 Use of Fertilizers
6.6.3 Biomass Production Cycle
6.6.4 GHG Emissions
6.6.5 Ash From Biomass Combustion
6.6.6 Health Effects
6.7 The Future of Biomass for Energy Production
Chapter 7 Solar Energy
7.1 Introduction
7.2 History of Solar Energy Utilisation
7.3 Solar Thermal
7.3.1 Flat-Plate Collectors
7.3.2 Parabolic Collectors
7.3.3 Central Tower Receivers
7.4 Issues with Solar Thermal
7.4.1 Land and Water Requirements
7.4.2 Energy Losses (Efstathios  E. Michelidis,  2012)
7.4.3 Environmental Concerns
7.5 Photovoltaic (PV)
7.5.1 Some Basics of Solar Cells
7.5.2 Efficiency of Solar Cells
7.5.3 Issues with Photovoltaic
7.6 Utilisation of Solar Energy
7.6.1 Solar Air Conditioning
7.6.2 Solar Stills
7.6.3 Solar Dryers
7.6.4 Solar Ponds
7.6.5 Passive Solar Heating
7.6.6 Solar Updraft Tower
7.7 Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Collectors
7.7.1 Low Temperature Collector
7.7.2 Medium Temperature Collectors
7.7.3 High Temperature Collectors
7.8 General Issues with Solar Power
7.9 Solar Power Potential in India
7.10 Futuristic Solar Utilisation
Chapter 8 Wind Energy
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Wind Patterns
8.3 Types of Wind Turbines
8.3.1 System Components
8.3.2 Optimum Wind Turbine Spacing
8.4 Wind Power and Efficiency
8.5 Grid-Connected Systems
8.6 Environmental Effects of Wind Power Stations
8.6.1 Wind Turbine Noise
8.6.2 Mechanical noise
8.6.3 Electromagnetic Interference from Wind Turbines
8.6.4 Effect of a Wind Turbine on Animals/Birds
8.7 India’s Wind Power Potential
Chapter 9 Geothermal Energy
9.1 Introduction
9.2 History of Geothermal Energy
9.3 Earth’s Core
9.4 Geothermal Wells
9.5 Types of Geothermal Resources
9.5.1 Dry Steam
9.5.2 Single-Flashing Units
9.5.3 Dual Flashing Units
9.5.4 Binary Cycle
9.6 Geothermal Plants
9.7 Uses for Geothermal Energy
9.8 Issues with Geothermal Energy
9.8.1 Environmental Impact
9.9 Future of Geothermal Energy
Chapter 10 Nuclear Energy
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Basics of Nuclear Physics
10.2.1 Isotopes
10.2.2 Binding Energy Concept
10.2.3 Radioactivity
10.3 Fission and Fusion
10.3.1 Fission Process
10.3.2 Fast and Thermal Neutron Fission
10.4 Energy Release
10.5 Basic Components of a Nuclear Reactor
10.5.1 Control
10.5.2 Safety
10.5.3 Radiation Monitoring
10.6 Reactor Core
10.7 Coolant
10.8 Control Rods
10.9 Moderator
10.10Other Core Components
10.11Containment
10.12Steam Generator and Steam Water System
10.13Fuel Handling
10.14 Types of Nuclear Reactors
10.14.1 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
10.14.2 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
10.14.3 Canada Deuterium-Uranium Reactors (CANDU)
10.14.4 Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR)
10.14.5 Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR)
10.15Issues with Nuclear Power
10.15.1 Impact of Mining
10.15.2 Reactor Accidents
10.15.3Waste Disposal
10.15.4 Spent Fuel Reprocessing
10.15.5 Transportation of Nuclear Fuels
10.16Points Favouring Nuclear Power
10.16.1 No Greenhouse Gases
10.16.2 Consequences of Fukushima and Chernobyl Accidents
10.16.3 How Waste is Immobilized and Disposed
10.16.4 Safety Approach
10.16.5We Live in a Radiation Full World
10.17Prospects and Concerns
Chapter 11 Energy Storage
11.1 Introduction
11.2 EES
11.3 Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
11.3.1 Issues with PHS
11.4 Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
11.4.1 Issues Related to CAES
11.5 Battery
11.5.1 Lead Acid Batteries
11.5.2 Nickel Cadmium Batteries
11.5.3 Sodium Sulphur
11.5.4 Sodium Nickel Chloride
11.5.5 Lithium Ion Batteries
11.5.6 Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES)
11.6 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
11.7 Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell
11.7.1 Issues with Hydrogen as Fuel
11.7.2 Hydrogen Economy
11.8 Comparison of EES Systems
Chapter 12 Comparison of Energy Sources
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Land and Energy Use
12.3 Water Use
12.4 GHG Emissions
12.4.1 Emissions from Energy Sources
12.5 Events in Energy Sector
12.6 Health Risks
12.7 Renewables  in the Grid
12.7.1 Challenges Posed to the Grid
12.7.2 Impacts to Fossil-Fuelled Generators
12.7.3 Micro and Smart Grids
12.8 Sustainable Development
12.8.1 Socio-Economic Sustainability
12.8.2 Environmental Sustainability
12.8.3 Energy-Water-Metal Nexus
12.9 Life Cycle Impact
12.10Decision Making Approaches
12.10.1 Figures of Merit
12.10.2 Japanese Case Study
12.10.3World Bank Study
12.10.4 Princeton Analysis

Appendix A  Other Pollution Contributors

Appendix B   A Survey of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making
Techniques

About The Authors

Dr. G. Vaidyanathan is a retired Outstanding Scientist and Director, Fast Reactor Technology from the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, India. His experience of 38 years includes Design, Analysis, Experimentation and Project Management in the area of nuclear energy. He has been involved in the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors and Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, which form the main stay of Indian Nuclear Power Programme. He was a visiting professor at SRM University for nearly 8 years, where he taught the subjects on Nuclear Engineering, safety and Alternative systems of Energy. He was also a guest faculty in Nuclear Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, where he taught post graduate students. He has also taught at Amity University and National Institute of Technologies.

Dr. B. Purniah is presently an Adjunct Professor at Vignan’s Foundation of Science, Technology and Research, Guntur, India. Earlier he served in the Department of Atomic Energy in India for nearly 40 years, in the material science group, where his specialization was spectroscopy of materials and later was involved in the strategic management division of the department where he dealt with the subject of nuclear energy and its policies. He has flair to teach science and maths to young children.

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