Climate Change and Biofuels


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This book is broadly divided into three chapters. The first chapter deals with the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources across the globe. The second chapter deals with the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in islands and the third chapter deals with the impact of Biofuels on Water Resources.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources


1.1 Reason for Global Warming and Climate Change

1.2 Global Warming Consequences

1.2.1 Impact of Climate Change to Human Civilization

1.2.2 Climate Change a Culture Killer

1.2.3 Climate Change Impact on Society

1.3 Climate Change Impact on Ice Reservoirs

1.3.1 Climate Change Threat on Major Ice Reservoirs

1.3.2 Glacier Retreat in Antarctic Ice Reservoir

1.3.3 Glacier Retreat in Greenland Ice Reservoir

1.3.4 Glacier Retreat in Arctic Sea Ice Reservoir

1.3.5 Global Mountain Glaciers Retreat

1.3.6 Glacier Retreat in Alaska Ice Reservoir

1.3.7 Glacier Retreat in Himalayan Ice Reservoir

1.3.8 Glacier Retreat in China and India

1.3.9 Glacier Retreat in Africa

1.3.10 Glacier Retreat in South America

1.3.11 Glacier Retreat in Europe

1.3.12 Glacier Retreat in United States

1.3.13 Nepal Glaciers Shrink by Quarter in 30 Years

1.3.14 Glaciers Melt on the Tibetan Plateau

1.3.15 Glacier Retreat in the Andes

1.4 Selected Examples of Ice Melt Around the World

1.4.1 Faster Glacier Retreats Everywhere in Earth

1.5 Factors Influencing Glacier Retreat

1.5.1 The Albedo Effect and Melting Ice Caps

1.5.2 Permafrost Influences on Glacier Retreat

1.6 Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Refugees

1.7 NASA Retreats its Infrastructure in the Face of Rising Sea Levels

1.8 Aquifer Salinisation Threat in India and Other Coastal Areas by Sea Level Rise

1.9 Arresting Salinisation by Keeping One Foot Fresh Groundwater Column above Mean Sea Level in the Coastal Area

1.10 Man and Nature Cooked up the Typhoon Haiyan Disaster in the Philippines

1.11 Age-Old Weather Indicators Under Stress in Bolivia by Climate Change

1.12 Climate Change and Biodiversity

1.13 Climate Change on Health

1.14 Risk of Losing the Glaciers Reservoirs

1.14.1 Impact of Glaciers Retreat on Domestic Water Supply

1.14.2 Water Loss in the Himalaya Affect Domestic Water Supply

1.14.3 India become Water Deficit Earlier

1.15 A Warmer World may be Leading to a Delayed Withdrawal of the Indian Monsoon, Hitting Crop Yield and Affecting the Livelihoods of Small Farmers and Agricultural Workers

1.15.1 Delayed Monsoon Retreat and Heavy Precipitation

1.15.2 Impact of the Delayed Monsoon Retreat on Agriculture

1.15.3 Crop Loss Due to Delayed and Extended Monsoon in Tamil Nadu

1.16 Arguments for and Against the Glacier Retreat in the Himalayan Mountain

1.16.1 Studies Suggesting Accumulation of Glacier

1.16.2 Glaciers Studies Suggest Retreat

1.16.3 What the Glacial Lakes Indicate?

1.17 Climate Change Affects Economy

1.17.1 Financial Cost of Climate Change and Adaptation

1.17.2 Impact of Climate Change on the Millennium Development Goals

1.18 Policies to Arrest Climate Change

1.18.1 Climate Stabilization Measures as per the Earth Policy Institute

1.18.2 Cutting Carbon Emission 80% by 2020

1.18.3 Carbon Divestment to Arrest Carbon Emission

1.18.4 Role of Young People to Arrest Carbon

1.18.5 Industrial Nations Should also Set an Example to Reduce Carbon Emission

1.18.6 United States of America Fall in Line to Cut Emissions

1.18.7 Involving Middle-Income Countries to Control Emission is a Key to Future Development

1.19 Adopting Cheaper Ways to Capture Carbon Dioxide

1.20 Climate Change Adaptation Measures

1.20.1 Institutional Climate Change Adaptation Measures

1.20.2 Educational Climate Change Adaptation Measures

1.20.3 Climate Change Adaptation in Project Design

1.20.4 Personal Solutions to Mitigate Global Warming

1.20.5 Car We Drive: The Most Important Personal Climate Decision

1.20.6 Choose Clean Power for Mitigation

1.20.7 Look for Energy Star for Mitigation

1.20.8 Unplug a Freezer for Mitigation

1.20.9 Get a Home Energy Audit for Mitigation

1.20.10 Light Bulbs for Mitigation

1.20.11 Think before We Drive for Mitigation

1.20.12 Buy Good Wood for Mitigation

1.20.13 Plant a Tree for Mitigation

1.20.14 Involving Policymakers and the Stakeholders

1.21 Climate Change Facts

1.22 Conclusions


Chapter 2 Impact of Climate Change on the Water Resources of Islands


2.1 Recent Climate Change Happenings in Some Countries

2.2 Impacts of Climate Change on Water, Food Grain, Sea Level, Health, Biodiversity and Economy

2.2.1 Climate Change and Water Scarcity

2.2.2 Climate Change and Food Grain

2.2.3 Climate Change and Economy

2.3 Islands in the World

2.4 Impact of Climate Change on the Island Nations and Islands

2.4.1 Climate Change and Migration of People

2.5 Sinking Islands

2.6 Natural Disasters in Pacific Islands

2.7 Water Demand for Islands

2.8 Water Issues in the Pacific Ocean Islands

2.9 Water Resources Case Studies of Two Islands

2.9.1 Case Study in Kurusadai Island

2.9.2 Location and Extent of Kurusadai Island

2.9.3 Climate, Rainfall and Crops

2.9.4 Physiography and Drainage

2.9.5 Geology of Kurusadai Island

2.9.6 Geophysical Survey

2.9.7 Drilling

2.9.8 Hydrogeology and Aquifer Characters

2.9.9 Water Resources of Kurusadai Island

2.9.10 Surface Water Potential of Kurusadai Island

2.9.11 Groundwater Potential of Kurusadai Island

2.9.12 Groundwater Potential of sand dunes in of Kurusadai Island

2.9.13 Groundwater Quality

2.9.14 Findings from Kurusadai Island

2.10 Case Study in Rhode Island

2.10.1 Water Resources of Rhode Island

2.10.2 Water use in Rhode Island

2.10.3 Effects of Groundwater Pumping on the Water Table Aquifer

2.10.4 Findings from the Rhode Island Hydrogeological Investigations

2.11 Why it is Important to Protect Islands?

2.12 Islands Facts

2.13 We Cannot Avoid Climate Change Refugees Both from Islands and Mainland Along with Uncontrolled use of Fossil Fuels

2.14 Conclusions


Chapter 3 Impact of Biofuels on Water Resources


3.1 Sources of Energy

3.2 Present Energy Generation from Different Sources

3.3 Future Energy Demand of the World

3.4 Entering of Biofuel on Energy Market

3.4.1 Emerging Biofuel Pathways

3.4.2 Biotech Crops

3.4.3 Types of Biofuels

3.4.4 First Generation Biofuels

3.4.5 Second Generation Biofuels

3.4.6 Third Generation Biofuels

3.4.7 Comparison of Biofuels with Fossil Fuels

3.4.8 Biotech Crops Area

3.4.9 Biofuels

3.4.10 Important Biofuels

3.4.11 Global Biofuel Production and use

3.4.12 Biofuels in the United States

3.5 Reasons to Promote Biofuels

3.5.1 Energy Security

3.5.2 Trade Balance

3.5.3 Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

3.5.4 Rural Development and Income Generation by Biofuels

3.6 Varieties of Biofuels

3.6.1 Ethanol

3.7 Energy Content of Ethanol

3.8 Energy Content of Biodiesel

3.9 Energy Content of Biogas

3.10 Comparison of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels

3.11 Benefits of Biofuels

3.12 Drawbacks of Biodiesel

3.13 Uses of Biofuels

3.14 Uses of Ethanol

3.15 Uses of Biodiesel

3.16 Uses of Biogas

3.17 Impact of Biofuel Crops on Water, Water Quality,

Food Grain, Food Prizes, Food Insecurity, Poverty,

Soil, Biodiversity, Agricultural Lands,

Deforestation and Displacement of Petroleum Fuels

with Biofuels

3.17.1 Impact of Biofuels Crops on Water Resources

3.17.2 Impact of Biofuel Crops on Water Quality

3.17.3 Impact Biofuel Crops on Food, Food Prizes, Food

Insecurity and Deep Poverty

3.17.4 Impact Biofuel Crops on Soil Resources

3.17.5 Impact of Biofuel Crops on Biodiversity

3.17.6 Conversion of Agricultural Lands and


3.17.7 Displacement of Petroleum Fuels with Biofuels

3.18 Future Biofuels Production in China

3.18.1 China’s Water Scope for Further Development of Biofuel Crops

3.19 Future Biofuels Production in India

3.20 Impact of Biofuel Crops on Agricultural Water use in India

3.20.1 Land Requirement for Biofuel Crops

3.20.2 Water Requirement for Biofuel Crops

3.21 Future Energy and the Role of Biofuels

3.22 Biofuel Success Story of Brazil

3.23 Biofuels Promotion Policy Options

3.24 Biofuel Facts

3.25 Conclusions


Appendix A

Appendix B

About the Author

Dr P M Natarajan, PhD., is Former Director, Centre for Climate Change, Periyar Maniammai Institute of Science and Technology, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. He is also Former Member, State Expert Apprasial Committee (SEAC), Government of Tamil Nadu. He has more than 50 years experience in water resources assessment, development, conservation, management, governance, rainwater harvesting, artificial groundwater recharge, remote sensing, climate change, teaching, research, etc.  He has presented more than 100 research papers at the regional, national and international conferences. His first book “Rainwater harvesting new approaches for sustainable water resources development” is the policy book to commerce rainwater harvesting in Tamil Nadu and globally this is the only book that explains both roof top and open area rainwater harvesting and artificial groundwater recharge techniques with scientific figures.

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