Applied Hydraulic Engineering

895

Author: Chandramouli P N

ISBN: 9789380381626

Copy Right Year: 2017

Pages:  1032

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

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SKU: 9789380381626 Category:

Description

This book is specially designed for the undergraduate students of civil engineering and AMIE. The text covers the syllabi requirements of almost all technical universities in India and abroad. A lucid pattern, both in terms of language and content, has been adopted throughout the text. This book will prove to be a boon to the students preparing for engineering, AMIE and other competitive examinations.

Additional information

Weight 1.2 kg
Dimensions 23 × 18 × 4 cm

Table of Content

Chapter 1 PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Pressure at a Point
1.2.1 Forces Acting on a Fluid Element
1.2.2 Definition of Stress
1.2.3 Sign Convention
1.2.4 Stress at a Point
1.3 Absolute, Gauge, Atmospheric and Vacuum Pressures
1.4 Pascal’s Law
1.5 Pressure Variation in a Static Incompressible Fluid
1.6 Pressure Equivalents and its Units
1.7 Measurement of Pressure
1.8 Measurement of Gauge Pressure at a Point −Piezometer
1.9 Manometer
1.9.1 U-tube Manometer
1.9.2 Multitude Manometer
1.9.3 Differential Manometer
1.9.4 Single-column Manometer
1.9.5 Inclined Single-column Manometer
1.9.6 Micro Manometer
1.10 Hydraulic Press or Bramah’s Press
1.11 Mechanical Gauges
1.11.1 Bourdon Gauge
1.11.2 Diaphragm Pressure Gauge
1.11.3 Deadweight Pressure Gauge
Chapter 2 FLOW MEASUREMENTS
2.1 Practical Application of Bernoulli’s Theorem
2.1.1 Venturimeter
2.1.2 Derivation of Discharge Equation for Venturimeter
2.2 Orifice Meter
2.2.1 Derivation of Discharge Equation for Orifice Meter
2.3 Flow Nozzle or Nozzle Meter
2.4 Pitot Tube
2.5 Floats
Chapter 3 FLOW OVER NOTCHES
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Types of Notches
3.3 Discharges over a Rectangular Notch
3.4 Time of Emptying the Tank Through a Rectangular Notch
3.5 Effect on Discharge over a Rectangular Notch due to Error in Measurement of Head
3.6 Discharges over a Triangular Notch or V-Notch
3.7 Advantages of V-Notch over Rectangular Notch
3.8 Time of Emptying a Tank over a Triangular Notch
3.9 Effect on Discharge over a Triangular Notch due to Error in the Measurement of Head
3.10 Discharges over Trapezoidal Notch
3.11 Discharges over Stepped Notch
3.12 Effect of Velocity of Approach
Chapter 4 FLOW OVER WEIRS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Classifications of Weirs
4.3 Discharges over Rectangular Weir
4.4 Francis Formula for Discharge over a Rectangular Weir
4.5 Bazin’s Formula for Discharge over a Rectangular Weir
4.6 Rehbock Formula
4.7 Ventilation of Rectangular Weirs
4.8 Time Required for Emptying a Reservoir with a Rectangular Weir
4.9 Discharges over a Triangular Weir
4.10 Time of Emptying a Tank over a Triangular Notch
4.11 Discharges over a Trapezoidal Weir
4.12 Discharges over a Narrow Crested Weir
4.13 Discharges over a Broad-Crested Weir
4.14 Discharges over a Submerged or Drowned Weir
4.15 Discharges over a Sharp Crested Weir
4.16 Discharges over an Ogee Weir
4.17 Proportional Weir
4.18 Experimental Determination of Weir Constants

Chapter 5 OPEN CHANNEL FLOW AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS
5.1 Description
5.2 Comparison of Open Channel Flow and Pipe Flow
5.3 Influence of Gravity and Viscosity on the Flow in an Open Channel
5.4 Flow Regimes
5.5 Classification of Flow in Open Channels or Types of Flow in Open Channels
5.6 Basic Flow Equations
5.6.1 Comparison between Energy and Momentum Principles
Chapter 6 OPEN CHANNELS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Natural and Artificial Channels
6.1.2 Rigid and Mobile Boundary Channels
6.1.3 Prismatic and Non-prismatic Channels
6.1.4 General Classification
6.2 Geometric Elements
6.2.1 Geometric Elements for Different Channel Cross Sections
6.3 Velocity Distribution
6.3.1 Pitot Tube
6.4 Energy and Momentum Correction Factors
6.4.1 Derivation of Energy and Momentum Correction Factors (α and β)
6.5 Pressure Distribution in Channels with Small Slope
6.6 Pressure Distribution in Channels with Large Slope
6.7 Pressure Distribution in Curvilinear Flows

Chapter 7 UNIFORM FLOW
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Resistance Equation or Shear Stress on the Boundary
7.3 Chezy’s Equation
7.3.1 Derivation of Chezy’s Equation
7.4 Empirical Formula for the Value of Chezy’s Constant
7.5 Factors Affecting Manning’s n
7.6 Estimating the Value of Manning’s n
Chapter 8 MOST ECONOMICAL SECTION
8.1 Definition
8.1.1 Most Economical Rectangular Section
8.1.2 Most Economical Trapezoidal Channel
8.1.3 Most Economical Circular Channel Section
8.1.4 Most Economical Triangular Section
8.1.5 Isosceles Triangular Channel Section (Sides at 45◦ with the Base)
Chapter 9 COMPUTATION OF UNIFORM FLOW
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Conveyance of a Channel Section
9.3 Non-Dimensional Forms of the Conveyance Curves
9.4 Problems of Uniform Flow Computation
9.5 Calculation of Normal Depth or Uniform Flow Depth
9.6 Hydraulic Exponent (N) for Uniform Flow Computation
9.7 Graphical Method to Find Hydraulic Exponent
Chapter 10 APPLICATION OF ENERGY PRINCIPLE
10.1 Energy Principle for Open Channel Flow
10.2 Specific Energy (or Specific Energy Head)
10.2.1 Specific Energy Curve or Variation of Specific Energy (Q = Constant)
10.3 Criterion for Critical State of Flow(Constant Discharge Situation)
10.3.1 Mathematical Expression for Critical Depth for Different Channel Sections
10.3.2 Mathematical Expression for Critical Velocity in a Rectangular Section
10.3.3 Mathematical Expression for Minimum Specific Energy in Terms of Critical
Depth for Rectangular Section
10.3.4 Discharge Diagram
10.3.5 Condition for Maximum Discharge for a Given Value of Specific Energy
10.4 Computation of Critical Flow
10.5 Hydraulic Exponent for Critical Flow Computation
10.6 Open Channel Transitions
10.6.1 Channel Transition from a Wider to a Narrower Channel (Throat) without
Change in Bed Level
10.6.2 Channel Transition without Change in Width but with Rise in Bed Level
Chapter 11 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Assumptions of Gradually Varied Flow
11.3 Dynamic Equations of Gradually Varied Flow
11.4 Different Forms of the Dynamic Equations
11.5 Recap of Section Factor, Conveyance and Hydraulic Exponents M and N
11.6 General Expression for Hydraulic Exponents M and N
11.7 Continuation of Different Forms of Gradually Varied Flow Equations
11.8 Classification of Channel Slopes and Flow Conditions
11.9 Classification of Flow Profiles
11.10 Classification of Surface Profiles
Chapter 12 GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW COMPUTATION
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Computation of Gradually Varied Flow
12.3 Graphical Integration Method
12.4 Numerical Integration Method
12.5 Direct Integration Method
12.6 Bresse’s Method
12.7 Bakhmeteff’s Method
12.8 Vente Chow’s Method
12.9 Direct Step Method
12.10 Standard Step Method
Chapter 13 APPLICATION OF MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE
13.1 Momentum Principle in Open Channel
13.2 Specific Force
13.2.1 Expression for Specific Force
13.3 Criterion for Critical State of Flow
13.4 Interpretation of Local Phenomena
13.5 Types of Hydraulic Jump (USBR Classification)
13.6 Analysis of the Hydraulic Jump
13.7 Hydraulic Jump in a Horizontal Rectangular Channel
13.7.1 Relation between Pre Jump and Post Jump Froude Numbers
13.8 Loss of Energy due to Hydraulic Jump
13.8.1 Height and Length of the Jump
13.8.2 Length of the Jump
13.8.3 Power Lost
13.8.4 Relative Loss (ΔE/E1)
13.8.5 Efficiency of the Hydraulic Jump (η)
13.9 Hydraulic Jump in a Triangular Channel
13.10 Gauging Flumes
13.10.1 Non-modular Flume or the Venturi Flume
13.10.2 Modular Flume or the Standing Wave Flume
Chapter 14 REVIEW OF PUMPS
14.1 Introduction
14.1.1 Selection of Centrifugal Pumps based on Specific Speed
14.2 Pump Classification
Chapter 15 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
15.1 Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps
15.2 Priming of a Centrifugal Pump
15.3 Main Parts of a Centrifugal Pump
15.3.1 Working of a Centrifugal Pump
15.3.2 Operational Difficulties in Centrifugal Pumps and their Remedies
15.4 Classification of Centrifugal Pumps
15.4.1 Casing
15.4.2 According to Relative Direction of Flow through Impeller
15.4.3 Number of Entrances to the Impeller
15.4.4 According to Working Head
15.5 Classification of Impeller
15.5.1 Shrouded or Closed Impeller
15.5.2 Semi-open Impeller
15.5.3 Open impeller
15.6 Comparison of Properties of Impeller and Displacement Type Pumps
15.7 Radial Flow Between two Parallel Discs
15.8 Circulation of Velocity around a Closed Circuit
15.9 Circulation of Velocity in an Impeller Pump
15.10 Flows Through Straight Conduits of Constant Cross Section
15.11 Flows Through Closed Conduits with a Variable Cross Section and a Curved Centre
Line
15.12 Velocity Distribution in Nozzles and Diffusers
15.13 Expression for the Work Done on the Impeller/Fundamental Equation of a Centrifugal
Pump
15.13.1 Working Proportions of Centrifugal Pump
15.14 Head Capacity Relationship
15.15 Pressure Changes in Centrifugal Pump
15.16 Ideal Efficiency of a Pump
15.17 Maximum Suction Lift
15.18 Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Centrifugal Pump
15.18.1 Head of a Pump
15.18.2 Efficiencies of Centrifugal Pump
15.19 Minimum Starting Speed
15.20 Shut-Off Head
15.21 Pump Laws
15.22 Effect of Variation in Speed
15.23 Specific Speed
15.23.1 Expression for Specific Speed for a Pump
15.24 Pump Similarity
15.25 Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps
15.25.1 Main Characteristic Curves
15.25.2 Operating Characteristics
15.25.3 Constant Efficiency Curves
15.25.4 Constant Head and Constant Discharge Curves
15.26 Multistage Centrifugal Pump
15.26.1 Multistage Centrifugal Pump for High Heads
15.26.2 Multistage Centrifugal Pump for High Discharge
15.27 Effect of Number of Blades
15.28 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
15.29 Cavitation in Pumps
15.30 Head Lost Due to Changes in Discharge
Chapter 16 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Types of Reciprocating Pump
16.3 Working of a Reciprocating Pump
16.4 Theory of the Reciprocating Pump
16.4.1 Discharge of Reciprocating Pump
16.5 Simple Indicator Diagram
16.6 Effect of Acceleration
16.7 Maximum Speed of the Rotating Crank of a Reciprocating Pump
16.8 Effect of Acceleration and Friction
16.9 Effect of Air Vessel
16.10 Work Saved by Fitting Air Vessel
16.11 Multiple Cylinder Pumps
16.11.1 Double Cylinder Pump
16.11.2 Triple Cylinder Pump
16.12 Performance Characteristics
Chapter 17 HYDRAULIC MACHINES−TURBINES
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Classification of Turbines
17.3 Layout of a Hydro-Electric Power Plant
17.4 Definitions of Heads
17.4.1 Head Loss due to Friction
17.4.2 Head Loss in the Nozzle
17.5 Power Produced by a Turbine
17.6 Efficiencies of a Turbine
Chapter 18 PELTON WHEEL TURBINE
18.1 Component Parts of Pelton Wheel
18.2 Velocity Triangle and Work Done for Pelton Wheel
18.3 Working Proportion of a Pelton Wheel
18.4 Radial Flow Impulse Turbine
Chapter 19 REACTION TURBINE-FRANCIS TURBINE
19.1 Reaction Turbine
19.2 Classification of Reaction Turbine
19.3 Main Components of a Radial Flow Reaction Turbine
19.3.1 Draft Tube Theory
19.4 Expression for Work Done in an Inward Radial Flow Turbine
19.5 Outward Flow Reaction Turbine
19.6 Mixed Flow Turbine
19.7 Power and Efficiency
19.8 Runaway Speed
19.9 Surge Tanks
Chapter 20 AXIAL FLOW REACTION TURBINE-KAPLAN TURBINE

20.1 Propeller Turbine and Kaplan Turbine
Chapter 21 PERFORMANCE OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES
21.1 Performance of Hydraulic Turbines
21.2 Performance Under Unit Head-Unit Quantities
21.3 Performance Under Specific Conditions
21.4 Characteristics of Turbines
21.5 Cavitation
21.6 Governing of Turbines
21.6.1 Governing of Pelton Wheel Turbine
21.6.2 Governing of Reaction Turbines

• Index

About The Author

P N Chandramouli is Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, The National Institute of Engineering, Mysore. He received his B.E in Civil Engineering from University of Mysore, M.E from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and Ph.D from Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. He has over 30 years of teaching experience at The National Institute of Engineering. He is a life member of ISTE and ACCE.

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